The Nepalese Army (नेपाली सेना), formerly known as the Gurkha Army (गोरखाली सेना), is the land service branch of the Nepalese Armed Forces. The terms "Gurkha" and "Gorkhali" are synonymous with "Nepali". During the period of the Nepalese unification campaign, it was known as the Gurkha Army and later as the Royal Nepalese Army following the establishment of a Hindu monarchy in Nepal. It was officially renamed to the Nepalese Army on 28 May 2008, following the abolition of the 240-year-old Shah dynasty shortly after the Nepalese Civil War.
The Nepalese Army has participated in various conflicts throughout its history, going as far back as the Nepalese unification campaign launched by Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Gorkha Kingdom. It has engaged in an extensive number of battles within South Asia, and continues to take part in global conflicts as part of United Nations peacekeeping coalitions.
The Nepalese Army is headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal and the incumbent Chief of Army Staff is General Purna Chandra Thapa.
Nepal Police is the national and primary law enforcement agency of Nepal. It is primarily responsible for maintaining law and order, prevention of crime and crime investigation within the jurisdiction determined by the Constitution of Nepal. Apart from its primary role, Nepal Police conducts vast array of duties such as VIP protection, Security of Vital Installations, Traffic management, Secret services, Intelligence collection, Riot Control, Disaster management, Hostage rescue and various other Ceremonial roles. Nepal Police is currently led by Inspector General of Police Shailesh Thapa Chhetri since 7 July 2020. He is the 28th IGP of Nepal Police.
The Nepalese Police is headed by the Inspector General of Police of Nepal. He reports directly to the Ministry of Home Affairs and is appointed by the Government of Nepal for a tenure of four years, although two IGPs have served for six years.
There are four departments in the Police Headquarters that function to undertake the policing activities of Nepal Police. These departments are headed either by Additional Inspector General of Police (AIGP) or Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIGP). In addition to the departments, there are the National Police Academy and the Metropolitan Police Office that are being looked by Additional Inspector General of Police.
The Armed Police Force , Nepal is a paramilitary land force tasked with counter-insurgency operations in Nepal. It functions as a semi-military wing, and occupies a sort of dual role as both military and law enforcement. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Initially founded with a roster of 15,000 police and military personnel, the Armed Police Force is projected to have a corps of 77,117 at the close of 2015.
In February 1996, the ideologically Maoist Communist Party of Nepal operating as the United People's Front of Nepal initiated what was then dubbed the "People's War". Ensuing armed resistance and criminal activity escalating from the conflict motivated King Gyanendra to consider amassing an independent police force. Subsequently, the Armed Police Force was founded on 24 October 2001. Late Krishna Mohan Shrestha of the Nepal Police (then serving as Additional Inspector General of Police) was its first Chief.
National Investigation Department (NID) (Nepali: राष्ट्रिय अनुसन्धान बिभाग) is the main intelligence agency of Nepal collecting information about country’s public security, economic crimes, corruption, domestic and cross border terrorism, money laundering, narcotics, and human trafficking. NID works under the Office of The Prime Minister and Council of Ministers .
NID is one of the four major security-related agencies in Nepal, other being Nepal Police, Armed Police Force, and Nepal Army. Crime Investigation Department, a branch of Nepal police and Directorate of Military Intelligence (Nepal), a branch of Nepal Army, are not related to NID.